Selasa, 02 Februari 2010

AN EXAMINATION OF COMMITMENT AND MOTIVATION FROM A SOCIAL IDENTITY PERSPECTIVE



WORK GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS: AN EXAMINATION OF COMMITMENT AND MOTIVATION FROM A SOCIAL IDENTITY PERSPECTIVE

Lefort, J. N. (2012). Work groups and organizations: An examination of commitment and motivation from a social identity perspective (Doctoral dissertation, CAPELLA UNIVERSITY).



Please reference to source, this paper for note only



 Abstract
As organizations become more work-group oriented, managers are faced with the challenge of bringing together individuals and overcoming conflicting interests and goals among the work-group members. Coupled with the growing use of workgroups and other groups within the  organizational structure, organizations also face the challenges of increasing diversity. The evolution of organizations from a static structure based on the needs of smoke stack industries to knowledge-based organic organizations creates new structures and relationships among employees within the context of the organization. The study attempted to examine the influence of gender upon an individual’s commitment to an organization, as well as, gender’s influence upon the individual’s motivation to perform as a member of an organization. In performing the study, the researcher intended to contribute to the development of a framework for identifying potential conflicts among members of the organization. An evaluation of the results leads the researcher to conclude that the study supports the findings from previous research while demonstrating the value of the questionnaire to further research. Although an individual survey or group of surveys cannot fully address the complex relationships within an organization, the tool utilized in the study can aid managers and others attempting to better understand relationships. Of the numerous paradigms examined during the study, the social identity theory appears to be the best perspective for examining individuals and groups within an organization.
 
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Introduction to the Problem

Evolving business environments have contributed to the modification of traditional organizational relationships and created research opportunities. Flexible organic organizations have voided traditional organizational structures leading to dynamic relationships among employees and employee groups within organizations. The changing landscape challenges employees and creates dilemmas within the organizational environment, while the creation of supra-organizations and virtual organizations exacerbate the employees’ confusion relative to the organizational interactions among themselves and their peers (Albert, Ashforth, & Dutton, 2000). Meanwhile, changing demographics in the workplace and changes in the markets force organizations to consider a diverse work force as a reality, and as a potential asset.
Meanwhile the affirmative action approach to diversity views a diverse workplace from a moral perspective (Cox & Blake, 1991). Under a diversity perspective, management leverages diversity as a tool for talent acquisition, a mode to enhance employee development, a source of insight in aligning the organization’s products with an evolving marketplace, a vehicle for challenging the status quo, and as a means to set new organizational standards (Katz & Miller, 2003). An effective and diverse organization does not develop quickly, instead it begins with the employee’s personal awareness and the acknowledgement that  diversity can contribute to the organization’s bottom line (Carr-Ruffino, 2007).
The dissertation includes a literature review which examines several paradigms offering insight into individual behavior within the context of a diverse organization. The literature review led to the decision to study a group of professionals from a perspective based on social identity theory and self-categorization theory. The first chapter of the dissertation includes research questions, which evolved into a set of hypotheses that became the basis for a quantitative study driven by an analysis of data derived from a survey instrument. The dissertation begins with a discussion of the background elements related to the topic, as well as a problem statement and a purpose statement.

Background of the Study
As organizations become more work-group oriented, managers are faced with the challenge of bringing together individuals and overcoming conflicting interests and goals among the work-group members (Gundlach, Zivnuska, & Stoner, 2006). Additional complexity is added as individuals sharing characteristics or sharing a fate interact with other groups of individuals (Turner, 1975). Coupled with the growing use of workgroups and other groups within the organizational structure, organizations also face the challenges of increasing diversity. Therefore, the study of groups requires the examination of complex systems attempting to meet the needs of the groups, as well as, the needs of the individuals comprising the groups (McGrath, Arrow, & Berdahl, 2000).
The evaluation of a work-group’s performance should consider the skill sets of the members plus the work-group’s goals and the processes undertaken to achieve those goals. The effectiveness of the  work-group’s processes can either overcome or contribute to group conflict (Stevens & Campion, 1999).
Researchers have noted numerous instances of diverse groups making better decisions than their less diverse counterparts (Hogg, Abrams, Otten, & Hinkle, 2004); however, other studies are inconclusive (Webber & Donahue, 2001). Contributing to the mixed research results is the absence of established theory in the area of diversity impact upon work-groups. Researchers note the lack of adoption of a single argument to explain the impact of all types of diversity on groups has contributed to difficulties in diversity research (Webber & Donahue, 2001).
Jackson, Joshi, and Erhardt (2003) review 63 studies examining diversity in teams and organizations. The authors note most studies under review are limited to readilydetected traits, such as, gender and race; which, fail to develop a true picture of diversity within the organization. The review demonstrates the difficulty of empirically measuring multi-dimensional diversity; which includes more than a single attribute. Rodriquez (1998) suggests organizations should be concerned about the impact of diversity in terms of strategy and potential benefits, while noting the lack of a thorough understanding of diversity on work-group results. Thus, opportunities for new research exist in areas of underrepresented diversity, as well as, in research designed to improve the measurement of both readily-detected diversity and underlying diversity (Jackson et al., 2003).
Group formation has been examined from multiple perspectives including personal attraction theory and social identification theory; however, the research results have led to conflicting conclusions as to the primary driver of group formation and interaction among group members (Hogg & Turner, 1985). Although later to the research scene than other paradigms, the social identity perspective has garnered numerous proponents since the mid-1990s. Unlike earlier theories, social identity emphasizes normative behavior not social pressure as the key to group interaction (Hogg et al., 2004). Regardless the cause of group formation, researchers contend the integration of individual goals with group goals leads to positive group performance (Hall, Schneider, & Nygren, 1970). Likewise, a sharing of responsibility among team members enhances the group’s performance (Gunlach et al., 2006).
Although the fields of performance measurement and performance management exhibit a significant amount of literature, the collection of empirical studies on thedeterminants of organizational performance does not offer the foundation of the other fields. In addition, the result of the available studies of the determinants conflicts (Pettigrew, Woodman, & Cameron, 2001). Failure to agree on the definition of basic terms, such as the definition team or work-group, plus the complexity associated with diversity, and the myriad types of teams contribute to the difficulty in performing the empirical studies (Cohen & Bailey, 1997).

Statement of the Problem
Organizations continue to be challenged by the need to develop an effective and efficient work force. However, changes in the workforce, the workplace, and the marketplace create new  hallenges for managers and employees. The changing composition of the workforce introduces numerous new perspectives into the organizational mix. In addition, the evolution of organizations from a static structure based on the needs of smoke stack industries to  nowledge-based organic organizations creates new structures and relationships among employees within the context of the organization.
Although scholarly research has attempted to examine organizational relationships, the research has not established a dominant paradigm capable of meeting the needs of managers facing the challenges of the evolving workplace. Mangers are currently exposed to numerous perspectives of the cause and effect of employee relationships. The advice of the scholars to the practitioners is often conflicting and leads to confusion among the practitioners. Through an examination of numerous paradigms and the testing of hypotheses based upon one of the paradigms, this research attempts to provide scholars with additional input for the development of organizational theories; meanwhile, the study’s results could provide assistance to managers seeking a basis for employee interaction.

Purpose of the Study
As previously discussed in the “Statement of the Problem”, scholars and practitioners are confronted with numerous points of view; which, attempt to explain relationships within organizations. While older theories continue to receive support from scholars, newer theories arrive on the scene and contribute to the practitioners’ uncertainties. Meanwhile, changes in the workforce, the workplace, and the market-place create new challenges for managers and employees. The changing composition of the workforce introduces numerous new perspectives into the organizational mix. Inaddition, the evolution of organizations from a static structure based on the needs of manufacturing industries to knowledge-based organic organizations creates new structures and relationships  among employees within the context of the organization.
The need for practitioners to understand the functioning of organizations is greater than in the past.
In keeping with the evolution of organizational theory the study tested the theory of social identity that relates work-group identification and organizational identification to employee commitment and employee motivation. The study examined relationships between an individual’s identification with a work-group and identification with an organization. The study explored the individual’s commitment to the organization. In addition, the study examined the individual’s motivation relative to the organization.
Controlling for gender, the study utilized independent and dependant variables to study the membership of the Professional Organization. The independent variables, work-group identification and organizational identification, were defined as the individual’s self-definition within the work-group or the organization (Mael & Ashforth, 1995). The dependent variable, organizational commitment, was defined as the emotional ties between the individual and the organization (Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993). The dependent variable, work motivation, was defined as the individual’s behavior intensions (Riketta & Ninaber, 2007).

Rationale
The study identified several paradigms as candidates for the examination of the problem. After examining the paradigms, the study proceeded to apply one of the paradigms to an analysis of the impact of the work group upon the members’ motivation, commitment, and performance. The paradigms under consideration are established paradigms with adherents of  each paradigm supporting the paradigm as the best means for understanding behavior within an organization. Included in the literature review is a behavior model based on Taylor’s economic perspective plus a paradigm building on McGregor’s Theory X and  Theory Y. Also included in the review is a group oriented perspective advocated by Mayo, as well as, paradigms based on cognitive theory, the social exchange approach and social identity theory. Although the paradigms share a common goal, the approaches are often at odds. Through a review of the literature comparing the paradigms and a testing of one particular paradigm the study strengthens the position of one paradigm in explaining organizational behavior.

Research Questions
Question 1: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s identification with the organizational?
Question 2: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s motivation?
Question 3: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s motivation?
Question 4: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s commitment?
Question 5: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s commitment?
Significance of the Study
The study examined the influence of gender upon an individual’s commitment to an organization, as well as, the individual’s motivation to perform as a member of an organization. Specifically, the study examined the role of group identification in employee motivation and commitment. By studying the impact of group identification upon the individual’s motivation and commitment to the organization, the study contributes to the development of data suitable for the creation of a framework for identifying potential conflicts among members of the organization while aiding in the creation of effective and efficient work groups. Using key concepts from social identity theory and self-categorization theory the study created a model based upon the work of Chattopadhay, Tluchowska, and George (2004) and established a foundation for future research using the framework of the model. Through the inclusion of the organizational commitment measurement tool developed by Meyer et al., (1993) and the organizational identification measurement tool developed by Mael and Ashforth (1995) in the study, the research added to an existing collection of research results obtained by the tools’ creatorsand other researchers using the tools in prior research. Likewise the study’s adoption ofthe tool developed by Schaufeli, Bakker, and Salanova (2006) added to the data collected by other researchers. In addition, the combination of the three tools in the context of the Professional Organization (Proforg) demonstrated the usefulness of the questionnaires as a research tool in an expanding area of the work environment.
Definition of Terms
Organization. For the purpose of the survey instrument included in this study,organization refers to the entity; which includes the respondent, the respondent’s workgroup and other groups  omprising the organization. Professional Organization. A non-profit organization engaged in the improvement of data analysis in the government and private industry. SPSS. A comprehensive data analysis tool. Work-group. Includes the team, group or co-workers of the respondent.

Assumptions and Limitations
Prior to beginning the study, the researcher considered the professional background of the participants and the completeness of the ProfOrg e-mail database asstrong influences upon the survey reaching the designated participants. In addition, the researcher was confident the study’s participants were capable of accurately completing the survey tool. The study’s participants were encouraged to complete the survey as an academic endeavor and were not compensated for their participation in the exercise.
The researcher considered the approach an efficient means for distributing new questionnaires to survey participants and expected a relatively quick cycle time. In addition, the use of the organization’s staff as a conduit between the study participants and the researcher enhanced the protection of the participant’s privacy. On the other
hand, the approach suffered from a lack of direct contact between the study participants and the researcher. Missing a personal connection with the participants, the researcher was concerned about the difficulty of motivating those participants failing to respond to requests from the  researcher. If the administrative staff became disengaged from the study, reliance on the administrative staff would create problems for the researcher.
However, the enthusiasm of the ProfOrg staff towards the study enhanced the degree of support for the implementation of the survey, while the ProfOrg’s direct contact with the membership mitigated the lack of personal contact between the researcher and the study participants. Overall, the access provided by the ProfOrg to a reliable study frame coupled with the enhanced privacy protection of the blind e-mail overshadowed the negative aspects of the approach.
Researchers must be aware of the potential for low response rates to surveys as well as the possibility of bias resulting from the low response rates. Regardless the determinate of low response rate, a study experiencing a low response rate requires an evaluation of the cause of the low rate and an exploration of the impact of the low response rate upon the study’s findings (Fowler, 2009).
The completion of the study depended upon improving response rates through good communication before and after the distribution of the survey tool. Study participants and administrative staff were informed of the purposes of the study and were encouraged to participate in the study. The researcher was confident the well-educated and cooperative group of participants would reduce the potential for errors attributable to the participants’ refusal to cooperate while eliminating concerns pertaining to the difficulty of interpreting and completing the survey tool.
After deciding upon the study group, the researcher strove to utilize a tool capable of capturing the required data. If the tool failed to gather accurate and meaningful data, the study would not succeed. The tool needed to include easy-to-understand instructions while retaining the  articipants’ interest throughout the completion of the questionnaire.
In order to mitigate potential risks relative to the design tool, the researcher examined the literature for previously used survey instruments, which meet the criteria for successful data collection, yet are not cumbersome. The scales chosen for inclusion in the student have been successfully included in earlier studies. Numerous researchers consider two of the scales as standards in the area of social identity theory research (Haslam, 2008).
Based on Fowler’s (2009) guidelines, the design of the proposed survey relied on several attributes associated with effective surveys. As a self-administered questionnaire,the tool consisted of closed questions. The use of closed questions simplified the participants’ tasks while creating a data set suitable for quantitative analysis. In addition, the absence of an interviewer reduced the potential for bias by the respondents.
Meanwhile, the questions composing the questionnaire avoided the hazards of incomplete wording, parenthetical probing, poorly defined terms or the combining of multiple questions into one statement. The questionnaire was designed to elicit responses suitable for supporting nominal and ordinal measurements. The elements of the questionnaire were accompanied by written directions assuring the participant’s privacy while navigating the participant through the instrument.

Nature of the Study
The study was designed to examine individuals within a work-group setting and to compare those findings to the relationships of the same individuals within the setting of the larger organization, which encompasses the workgroup. Beginning with a literature review, the study identified the impact of a changing environment upon organizations. The literature review also examined several theories designed to explain group dynamics. Figure 1 depicts the study’s conceptual framework and demonstrates the interplay of the areas of interest on each other.
Applying quantitative quasi-experimental research techniques the study utilized a survey instrument as the primary data collection tool. The study included a sample from the population of private sector and governmental professional workers. Data from the study provided information for an analysis of relationships among group identity, organization identity and the attributes referred to as commitment and motivation.

gbr.1

Organization of the Remainder of the Study

Chapter 2 provides a review of the literature. The literature review introduces thereader to organizations followed by a discussion of the influence of diversity upon organizations. Next the literature review proceeds to present several paradigms related to the study of behavior. After discussing motivation and commitment, the review delves into a discussion of social identity theory and self-categorization theory. Following the introduction of the paradigms, the literature review performs a comparison of the usefulness of the paradigms relative to the study of behavior and suggests a paradigm for inclusion in the research portion of the study. Chapter 3 includes a discussion of the research methodology chosen to answer the research questions. The research design, the research sample, data collection tools, the data collection process, data analysis plan, validity, reliability, and ethical consideration are included in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 presents the collected data and the accompanying analysis of the data in terms of the research questions. Chapter 5 is the summary of the study including a discussion of the study, the methodology, the study’s findings, conclusions based on the findings and recommendations for further research.
 ...
 ===

 ...



Conclusion
Research Question 1. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s identification with the organization? The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s identification with the organization.

Research Question 2. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s motivation? The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship
between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s motivation.

Research Question 3. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s motivation? The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s motivation.

Research Question 4. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s work commitment? The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s work commitment.

Research Question 5. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s work commitment? The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s work commitment.



CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction
As the final component of the study, Chapter 5 connects the previous chapters and provides a discussion for a path forward based on the study. The previous chapters provided the rationale and need for the study, as well as, providing, the mechanism for the collection of data and the analysis of the collected data. Chapter 5 begins a brief discussion of the problem under study and provides a summary of the results presented in Chapter 4. Following the presentation of the results, a discussion of the results considers the meaning of the results, as well as, the impact of the results on the current study and on the general body of knowledge. While considering the limitations of the current study, recommendations are offered for further study.
Summary of the Results
The changing composition of the workforce introduces numerous new perspectives into the organizational mix. Changes in the structure of organizations coupled with the increasing diversity of the workforce impart increasing challenges upon organizations and the organizations’ management. Prior attempts to examine organizational relationships have failed to establish a paradigm capable of meeting the needs of managers facing the challenges of the evolving workplace. Through an examination of numerous paradigms and the testing of hypotheses based upon one of the paradigms, this research attempted to provide scholars with additional input for the development of organizational theories. In addition, the researcher hoped to provide assistance to managers seeking a basis for employee interaction.
The study examined the influence of gender upon an individual’s commitment to an organization, as well as, the individual’s motivation to perform as a member of an organization. Specifically, the study examined the role of group identification in employee motivation and commitment. By studying the impact of group identification upon the individual’s motivation and commitment to the organization, the study contributes to the development of data suitable for the creation of a framework for identifying potential conflicts among members of the organization while aiding in the creation of effective and efficient work groups. Using key concepts from social identity theory and self-categorization theory the study created a model based upon the work of Chattopadhay, Tluchowska, and George (2004) and established a foundation for future research using the framework of the model.
The study began with a review of the literature relative to organizations and diversity. Identifying employee motivation and employee commitment as critical concerns of organizations, the study examined the various meanings of the terms to researchers and the role of the attributes within organizations. The review examined the differentiation between the terms commitment and identity, as well as, the differentiation between the terms organizations and identity. An exploration of research based on numerous paradigms demonstrated the strength of social identity theory in explaining the actions of individuals in a group context. Utilizing scales developed by established scholars, the study collected data from ProfOrg. The data collection instrument was a Lickert-type questionnaire residing on a web-based server. The results of the data analysis follow:
Research Question 1. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s identification with the organization? As the interaction was not significant, moderation cannot be supported.
Research Question 2. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s motivation? As the interaction was not significant, moderation cannot be supported.
Research Question 3. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s motivation? As the interaction was not significant, moderation cannot be supported.
Research Question 4. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s work commitment? As the interaction was not significant, moderation cannot be supported.
Research Question 5. In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s work commitment? As the interaction was not significant, moderation cannot be supported.
107
Discussion of the Results
The data collected through the data collection instrument was analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical techniques. In addition, each hypothesis was tested by the application of moderation analysis through regression.

Research Question 1
RQ1: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s identification with the organization?
H1 0: There is not a relationship between gender and an individual’s work-group identification relative to the individual’s identification with the organization.
H1a: There is a relationship between gender and an individual’s work-group identification relative to the individual’s identification with the organization. The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s identification with the organization.
Research Question 2
RQ2: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an
individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s motivation?
H20: There is not a relationship between gender and an individual’s work-group identification relative to the individual’s motivation.
H2a: There is a relationship between gender and an individual’s work-group identification relative to the individual’s motivation. The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s motivation.
Research Question 3
RQ3: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s motivation? H30: There is not a relationship between gender and an individual’s identification with the organization relative to the individual’s motivation. H3a: There is a relationship between gender and an individual’s identification with the organization relative to the individual’s motivation. The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s motivation.

Research Question 4
RQ4: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s commitment? H40: There is not a relationship between gender and an individual’s work-group identification relative to the individual’s commitment.
H4a: There is a relationship between gender and an individual’s work-group identification relative to the individual’s commitment. The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship between an individual’s work-group identification and the individual’s work commitment.

Research Question 5
RQ5: In a professional setting, does gender influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s commitment?
H50: There is not a relationship between gender and an individual’s identification
with the organization relative to the individual’s commitment.
H5a: There is a relationship between gender and an individual’s identification with the organization relative to the individual’s commitment. The accepting of the hypothesis associated with this question leads the researcher to conclude that based on this study gender does not influence the relationship between an individual’s identification with the organization and the individual’s work commitment. While the analysis supports the five hypotheses, the study included several limitations. The response rate of 276 participants was less than the study’s goal of 316 participants. While representative of the ProfOrg membership, the respondents were primarily older employees established in their careers and workplaces. In addition, the participants were mainly public sector workers. Importantly, the ratio of male respondents to female respondents was 69.2% to 30.8%. Finally, the respondents were overwhelmingly Caucasian/White.
Discussion of the Conclusions
An evaluation of the results leads the researcher to conclude that the study supports the findings of previous research while demonstrating the value of the questionnaire to further research. Cohen and Bailey (1997) noted the lack of basic definitions such as team or workgroup and the challenges created  by diversity in the performance of empirical studies. The current study included a building block for the development of a more detailed definition of team and work-group. By limiting the moderation analysis to gender and demonstrating the lack of impact of gender differences upon identity, commitment and motivation the study demonstrated that diversity goes beyond the notion of gender. In addition, the study supports Haslam’s (2008) contention that organizational behavior is dependent upon organizational identity.
The study leveraged research and research tools created for earlier research. The application of a social identity perspective to a study of group dynamics follows the trail established by current researchers (Ellemers et al., 2004). Meanwhile, the study’s design aligns with concepts of multiple levels of identity within organizations particularly in the context of work-group versus the organization. Building upon the work of Mael and Ashford (1995) in the area of organizational identification, the work of Meyer et al. (1993) in the area of organization commitment and the work of Schaufeli and Bakker (2003) in the area of work motivation the results of the study supported the earlier findings while demonstrating the reliability of the tools included in the study. The questionnaire used in the study applied the tools created by the aforementioned researchers into one model. While the questionnaire was limited to collecting data for the study of the moderation impact of gender upon identity,commitment, and motivation, the tool is suitable for addition studies beyond its present context.
Limitations
While the analysis supports the five hypotheses, the study included limitations which reduce the quality of the study. The response rate of 276 participants exceeded the sample size requirement of 200 suggested by Aguinis (2004); however, the number of participants did not meet the requirement of 316  participants required by power calculation. As an organization ProfOrg had a limited history of participation in the conduct of surveys. In order to overcome a low response rate the entire ProfOrg membership was invited to participate in the study. Unknown to the researcher, ProfOrg and a member of ProfOrg each introduced other surveys to the membership while the researcher was transmitting the survey for the study to the ProfOrg membership. The researcher believes the confusion caused by the presentation of three surveys to the membership during the holiday season adversely impacted participation by the ProfOrg membership in the study. In order to confirm the findings of the study a follow-up survey could be performed at a later date.
Based on other supporting information, the respondents appear to be representative of the demographics of the ProfOrg membership; however, the ProfOrg demographics are not representative of the general work force. The typical ProfOrg member is an older Caucasian male working in the public sector. Given the skewed demographics of the sample, the results are limited to ProfOrg and are not readily generalized.
Recommendations for Further Study
The study’s basic design and the data collection tool are flexible and could be applied to multiple research scenarios. The study could be replicated in any organizational setting. The study could also be performed using a sample from a general population. Through the performance of studies in numerous settings, the researcher could perform a meta-analysis of the results and develop generalizations from the findings.
The current study was limited to gender as a moderator. Using the same questionnaire, further studies could incorporate other moderators or a combination of moderators to study the influence of diversity from a broader perspective. As a follow-up to the preceding studies, the researcher could perform a qualitative follow-up to the studies. The follow-up interviews would be designed to provide insight into the Why? of the participants’ responses to the questionnaire.

Conclusion
Limited by the quality of the ProfOrg sample the study suggests gender is not a moderator of employees’ commitment or motivation in an organizational setting. The findings confirm earlier research that gender alone does not impact employees’ attitudes or perspectives. An accurate depiction of diversity must go beyond the most apparent characteristics of the individual and consider the complexity of individual circumstances.
Although an individual survey or group of surveys cannot fully address the complex relationships within an organization, the tool utilized in the study can aid managers and others attempting to better understand relationships. Of the numerous paradigms examined during the study, the social identity theory appears to be the best perspective for examining individuals and groups within an organization.



Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar