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CHAPTER 1-Ind

Gambar
CHAPTER 1 Applying Social Psychology—Typical Features, Roles, and Problems
Oskamp, S., & Schultz, P. W. (1998). Applied social psychology. Englewood Cliffs., NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Examples of Applied Social Psychology A Definition of Applied Social Psychology Divisions of the Field Typical Features of Applied Social Psychology A Problem Orientation A Value Orientation Social Utility A Focus on Social Situations A Broad Approach Field Settings Practical Considerations Basic Versus Applied Science Uses of Theory in Applied Work Roles and Activities Research Evaluation Consultation and Change Agentry
Policy Advice Management of Organizations

CHAPTER 1

Gambar
CHAPTER 1 Applying Social Psychology—Typical Features, Roles, and Problems



Examples of Applied Social Psychology A Definition of Applied Social Psychology Divisions of the Field Typical Features of Applied Social Psychology A Problem Orientation A Value Orientation Social Utility A Focus on Social Situations A Broad Approach Field Settings Practical Considerations Basic Versus Applied Science Uses of Theory in Applied Work Roles and Activities Research Evaluation Consultation and Change Agentry Policy Advice Management of Organizations Social Activism Is Social Psychology Really Applicable? Has Social Psychology Been Applied? The Applied Versus Theoretical Conflict Should Social Psychology Be Experimental? Can Social Science Influence Public Policy? Other Responses Concerning Applicability Problems for Applied Social Psychology What Is the Evidence? Is the Evidence Generalizable? Unintended Consequences Ethical Issues Summary Suggested Readings


All science must be applied scie…

Quasi-Experimental-Ind

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Quasi-Experimental - Studies?Effects of Television Quasi-Experimental  Studies?Effects of Television  Definition of Quasi-Experimental Research  Analysis of the "Sesame Street" Study  A Nonequivalent Control Group Study: "Sesame  Statistical Conclusion Validity  Street"  Internal Validity  Construct Validity  Methodology  External Validity  Results  A Time-Series Study: TV and Reading  Threats to Valid Inference  Analysis of the TV and Reading Study  Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity  Using Randomization in Field Research  Threats to Internal Validity  Examples of Situations Where Randomization  Threats to Construct Validity of Causes and Effects  May Be Possible  Threats to External Validity  Relationships Among the Four Types of Validity   Randomization in Quasi-Experimental Studies  Summary  Suggested Readings
Science is simply common sense at its best—that is, rigidly accurate in observation, and merciless to fallacy in logic. —Thomas H. Huxley
Sains hanya akal sehat yang terb…

Experiments Soliciting Donations-Ind

Gambar
BAB 4 Percobaan Pengumpulan Sumbangan

Ini adalah tujuan utama dari percobaan-lab atau bidang-memiliki kemungkinan dampak terbesar pada subjek dalam batas pertimbangan etis dan persyaratan kontrol. -Aronson, Brewer, & Carlsmith (1985, p. 482)
Misalkan Anda akan door-to-door, meminta sumbangan untuk Heart Association atau Cancer Society. Dalam rangka untuk mengumpulkan jumlah maksimum untuk organisasi Anda, Anda ingin membuat pernyataan pembukaan terbaik ketika orang datang ke pintu.Apa yang harus Anda katakan? Jika Anda menekankan bahwa tetangga mereka telah diberikan? Atau meminta sejumlah uang sebagai tujuan? Atau meminta kontribusi apapun, tidak peduli seberapa kecil? Atau apa?
Kebanyakan orang menangani situasi seperti dengan mengikuti firasat mereka, atau menggunakan ibu jari aturan-of-diturunkan oleh beberapa kolektor lebih berpengalaman.Namun, untuk mendapatkan jawaban yang benar-benar valid untuk pertanyaan semacam ini, metode terbaik akan melakukan percobaan, mencoba beber…

Quasi-Experimental Studies?Effects of Television Ind

Quasi-Experimental
Studies?Effects of Television
Definition of Quasi-Experimental Research  Analysis of the "Sesame Street" Study
A Nonequivalent Control Group Study: "Sesame  Statistical Conclusion Validity
Street"  Internal Validity
Construct Validity
Methodology
External Validity
Results
A Time-Series Study: TV and Reading
Threats to Valid Inference
Analysis of the TV and Reading Study
Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity
Using Randomization in Field Research
Threats to Internal Validity
Examples of Situations Where Randomization
Threats to Construct Validity of Causes and Effects
May Be Possible
Threats to External Validity
Relationships Among the Four Types of Validity   Randomization in Quasi-Experimental Studies
Summary
Suggested Readings


Science is simply common sense at its best-that is, rigidly accurate in observation, and merciless to fallacy in logic. -Thomas H. Huxley
Quasi-Experimental - Studi Pengaruh Televisi
Quasi-Experimental
Studi? Pengaru…

Quasi-Experimental - Studies?Effects of Television

Gambar
Quasi-Experimental  Studies?Effects of Television  Definition of Quasi-Experimental Research  Analysis of the "Sesame Street" Study  A Nonequivalent Control Group Study: "Sesame  Statistical Conclusion Validity  Street"  Internal Validity  Construct Validity  Methodology  External Validity  Results  A Time-Series Study: TV and Reading  Threats to Valid Inference  Analysis of the TV and Reading Study  Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity  Using Randomization in Field Research  Threats to Internal Validity  Examples of Situations Where Randomization  Threats to Construct Validity of Causes and Effects  May Be Possible  Threats to External Validity  Relationships Among the Four Types of Validity   Randomization in Quasi-Experimental Studies  Summary  Suggested Readings


Science is simply common sense at its best—that is, rigidly accurate in observation, and merciless to fallacy in logic. —Thomas H. Huxley

Suppose you are a researcher trying to study the results of…

Experiments Soliciting Donations

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CHAPTER 4 Experiments Soliciting Donations
Examples of Experiments on Important Social Topics  An Illustrative Social Psychology Experiment  Theory Procedure Results Remaining Questions Key Considerations in Experiments Planning Laboratory Versus Field Experiments Instructions Research Participants  Control of Conditions Experimental Procedures  Experimental Artifacts Results Obtained Internal Validity and External Validity  Long-Term Effects Ethical Issues The Need for an Experimenting Society  Summary Suggested Readings

It  is  the  major  objective  of  an  experiment-lab  or  field-to  have  the  greatest possible  impact  on  a  subject  within  the  limits  of  ethical  considerations  and requirements of control. -Aronson, Brewer, & Carlsmith (1985, p. 482)
Suppose that you are going door-to-door, soliciting donations for the Heart Association or the Cancer Society. In order to collect the maximum amount for your organization, you want to make the best possible opening sta…

CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2 Theories in Applied Social Psychology

Useful Personality and Social Psychological Constructs Psychometric Measurement of Abilities Interests, Values, and Motives Social Psychological Principles Approach-Avoidance Conflict Foot in-the-Door and Door-in-the-Face Public Commitment Expectations Theories of Social Influence Learning Theories Theories of Persuasion Cognitive Dissonance Theory Reactance Theory Theories of Normative Influence Theories of Social Cognition Attitudes Stereotypes Adaptation-Level Theory Social Comparison Theory Social Judgment Theory Attribution Theory Theories of Social Relations Equity Theory Role Theory Group Process Theories Theories of Organizational Behavior Theories About Communities Summary Suggested Readings
There is nothing so practical as a good theory. — Kurt Lewin (1944/1951, p. 169)
In this chapter we examine a variety of social psychological theories and principles. Recall that in the previous chapter, we defined applied so…

Cognitive Approaches to Religion (Ind)

Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality / edited by Raymond F. Paloutzian, Crystal L. Park. (p.216-234) *************************************************************************** 12 Cognitive Approaches to Religion Elizabeth Weiss Ozorak Dalam esai utama untuk edisi 2001 Ulasan theAnnual Psikologi, Albert Bandura mencatat bahwa pergeseran paradigma telah terjadi di lapangan dalam beberapa dekade terakhir. Psikologi tidak lagi memandang perilaku manusia hanya sebagai satu set tanggapan yang telah ditentukan dengan lingkungan, atau sebagai output dari komputer complexly diprogram, melainkan orang yang diakui sebagai agen yang mampu melakukan tindakan sengaja dengan maksud untuk mencapai tujuan yang kongruen dengan tertentu set keyakinan. Dalam pandangan ini, sistem kepercayaan yang penting, karena mereka memberikan orang-orang dengan model kerja dunia yang membantu mereka membuat pilihan perilaku. Dalam paradigma ini, penelitian pada semua aspek kognisi sudah b…

Religion and Forgiveness (Ind)

Agama dan Pengampunan Bahasa Dari:  BUKU TENTANG PSIKOLOGI AGAMA DAN SPIRITUALITAS --- RAYMONDF. PALOUTZIAN Crystall. PARK (hal.394-411) 22 Religion and Forgiveness MICHAEL E. McCullough Giacomo BONO LINDSEY M. ROOT Konsep pengampunan (Forgiveness) telah pergi dari ketidakjelasan ilmiah lengkap baru-baru ini tahun 1980 hingga visibilitas yang luar biasa dalam beberapa tahun pertama abad ke-21. Ledakan dalam penelitian forgiveness (pengampunan) dapat dihargai dengan memeriksa Gambar 22.1, di mana kita telah ditampilkan jumlah tahunan item katalog di PsycINFO yang mencakup batang kata "forgiv *" dalam abstrak mereka (1980-2004). Angka ini jelas menunjukkan bahwa sementara forgiveness /pengampunan adalah konsep psikologis yang mendapat perhatian empiris diabaikan pada 1980-an, ilmuwan sosial telah memproduksi puluhan publikasi pada topik per tahun selama beberapa tahun terakhir. Psikolog telah memberikan perhatian berkelanjutan untuk beberapa aspek pengampunan, term…

7 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience 231

7 * Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
When you think of the long and gloomy history of man, you will find more hideous crimes have been committed in the name of obedience than have ever been committed in the name of rebellion. —C. P. Snow


The jury had been impanelled to hear the case State v. Leroy Reed. Reed, a paroled felon, had been arrested for possessing a gun. Karl, a firefi ghter, sat in the jury box, carefully listening and watching. The prosecuting attorney argued that the defendant should be found guilty of violating his parole, despite any sympathy jurors might feel for him. The defense attorney argued that even though Reed had bought a gun, he should not be found guilty.