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Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation

A Room with a Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels
Noah J. Goldstein
Robert B. Cialdini
Vladas Griskevicius*
Published by: The University of Chicago Press
Article DOI: 10.1086/586910
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/586910
Elektronik diterbitkan 3 Maret 2008
di unduh: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/586910#mobileBookmark 21 sept 2014
aslinya ada di  http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/586910

Goldstein, N. J., Cialdini, R. B., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A room with a viewpoint: Using social norms to motivate environmental conservation in hotels.Journal of consumer Research, 35(3), 472-482.
Two field experiments examined the effectiveness of signs requesting hotel guests’ participation in an environmental conservation program. Appeals employing descriptive norms (e.g., “the majority of guests reuse their towels”) proved superior to a traditional appeal widely used by hotels that focused solely on environmental protection. M…

Changing the habit by changing the context

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Perilaku Berkelanjutan: Mengubah kebiasaan dengan mengubah konteks copy paste from: http://blog.sustainability.colostate.edu/?q=node/59 23 Sept 2014
 Sustainable behavior: Changing the habit by changing the context Ditulis oleh Liesel Hans , SoGES 2013-2014 Sustainability Leadership Fellow, and PhD Candidate in the Department of Economics


Habits make life easier in a hectic, fast-paced world. It’s hard to fight routine and convenience. There are actions taken everyday that we probably would acknowledge as something we could, to our own benefit, do differently (candy dish, anyone?). We unfortunately aren’t the perfectly rational or consistent decision-makers suggested by traditional economic theory.

Always Be normal

Always Be normal
copas from: http://www.thehumaneleague.com/changeofheart/e_normal.htm
Kami suka berpikir kita independen dan bahwa kita membuat pilihan berdasarkan apa yang ingin kita lakukan, bukan apa yang orang lain lakukan. Namun penelitian tentang sosial norma-informasi tentang apa yang kebanyakan orang lain lakukan-menyarankan kita dipengaruhi oleh pendapat mayoritas lebih dari yang kita pikirkan. Menjalankan norma-norma sosial dapat membantu aktivis berhasil mengubah sikap dan perilaku. Tadi kita membahas bagaimana memanggil norma-norma sosial lebih berhasil dalam mendapatkan pemilik rumah untuk menghemat energi daripada menarik bagi penghematan keuangan, manfaat masyarakat atau perlindungan lingkungan. Dalam studi lain, peneliti persuasi terkenal Robert Cialdini dan rekan-rekannya bekerja dengan sebuah hotel untuk membuat perubahan pada tanda-tanda kamar mendorong penggunaan kembali handuk. Sebelumnya tanda-tanda telah meminta para tamu untuk menggunakan kembali handuk untuk me…

A social influence model of consumer participation in network- and small-group-based virtual communities

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A social influence model of consumer participation in network- and small-group-based virtualcommunities Utpal M. Dholakia a, * , Richard P. Bagozzi a , Lisa Klein Pearo b
a Rice University, Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Management, 6100 Main Street, 314 Herring Hall-MS 531, Houston, TX 77005, USA b Cornell University, Cornell School of Hotel Administration, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Received 8 May 2003; received in revised form 1 September 2003; accepted 5 December 2003
Abstract
We investigate two key group-level determinants of virtual community participation—group norms and social identity—and consider their motivational antecedents and mediators. We also introduce a marketing-relevant typology to conceptualize virtual communities, based on the distinction betweennetwork-based and small-group-based virtual communities. Our survey-based study, which was conducted across a broad range of virtual communities, supports the proposed model and finds further that virtual community type moderates cons…

Persuasive Trash Cans Activation of Littering Norm by Design

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Persuasive Trash Cans Activation of Littering Norm by Design  Yvonne A. W. de Kort L. Teddy McCalley Cees J. H. Midden Eindhoven University of Technology

Please reference to source, this paper for note only
Two studies tested littering norm activation by trash can design. The first was a scenario study using a 4 (norm type: social injunctive vs. social descriptive vs. personal vs. control) ×2 (activation type: explicit vs. implicit activation) between-group design, with judgments of a litterer as the dependent variable. Explicit norm activation was more effective than implicit activation. A field study subsequently tested the effect of personal norm activation on actual littering behavior, following a 2 (explicit activation: no vs. yes) ×2 (Implicit activation: no vs. yes) between-group design. Here, both explicit activation through a verbal prompt and implicit activation through design had significant effects, reducing the amount of litter by 50%. A post hoc survey revealed significant e…

Descriptive and Injunctive Norms in College Drinking

Descriptive and Injunctive Norms in College Drinking: A Meta-Analytic Integration
Borsari, B., & Carey, K. B. (2003). Descriptive and Injunctive Norms in College Drinking: A Meta-Analytic Integration.Journal of Studies on Alcohol,64(3), 331–341.
Please reference to source, this paper for note only  from: Copy from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2431131/
Go to: Abstract Objective Many college students overestimate both the drinking behaviors (descriptive norms) and the approval of drinking (injunctive norms) of their peers. As a result, consistent self-other discrepancies (SODs) have been observed, in which self-perceptions of drinking behaviors and approval of drinking are usually lower than comparable judgments of others. These self-other discrepancies form the foundation of the currently popular “social norms approach” to alcohol abuse prevention, which conveys to students the actual campus norms regarding drinking behaviors and approval of alcohol use. However, little atte…

Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment

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Jurnal:
Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment
Cialdini, R. B. (2003). Crafting normative messages to protect the environment.Current directions in psychological science,12(4), 105-109. Note: Harap merujuk ke sumber aslinya (30 Sept 2014)
It is widely recognized that communications that activate social norms can be effective in producing societally beneficial conduct. Not so well recognized are the circumstances under which normative information can backfire to produce the opposite of what a communicator intends. There is an understandable, but misguided, tendency to try to mobilize action against a problem by depicting it as regrettably frequent. Information campaigns emphasize that alcohol and drug use is intolerably high, that adolescent suicide rates are alarming, and most relevant to this article that rampant polluters are spoiling the environment. Although these claims may be both true and well intentioned, the campaigns creators have missed something critically impor…

TESTING AN EXPANDED ATTITUDE MODEL OF GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR IN...

TESTING AN EXPANDED ATTITUDE MODEL OF GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR IN A LOYALTY CONTEXTTaylor, Steven A;Hunter, Gary L;Longfellow, Timothy A.Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior Catatan: INI HANYA sebuah Catatan, JANGAN dijadikan rujukan.Silahkan merujuk KE Sumber aslinya Abstrak Marketers have known for some time that satisfaction is closely linked to loyalty intentions (Oliver 1997, 1999). However, Johnson et al. (2006) argue that the drivers of customer loyalty intentions are complex and dynamic, changing and evolving over time. The current study therefore approaches the explanation of loyalty intentions in a different way. Specifically, the argument is made and a model is tested and supported of loyalty intentions based upon attitudinal, Goal-Directed conceptualizations. Specifically, we adapt the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior (MGB) posited byPeruginiandBagozzi(2001) and apply the model to loyalty in a B2B service context. First, the goal-directed, …

Predictive models of implicit and explicit attitudes

Predictive models of implicit and explicit attitudes
Perugini, M. (2005). Predictive models of implicit and explicit attitudes.The British Journal of Social Psychology,44(1), 29-45. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219197582?accountid=17242

Perugini, M. (2005). Predictive models of implicit and explicit attitudes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44(1), 29-45.
Note: Ini hanya sebuah catatan, jangan dijadikan rujukan. Silahkan merujuk ke sumber aslinya


Abstrak Explicit attitudes have long been assumed to be central factors influencing behaviour. A recent stream of studies has shown that implicit attitudes, typically measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT), can also predict a significant range of behaviours. This contribution is focused on testing different predictive models of implicit and explicit attitudes. In particular, three main models can be derived from the literature: (a) additive (the two types of attitudes explain different portion of variance in…

Comparing Leading Theoretical Models of Behavioral Predictions and Post-Behavior Evaluations

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Note: Ini hanya sebuah catatan, jangan dijadikan rujukan. Silahkan merujuk ke sumber aslinya
Comparing Leading Theoretical Models of Behavioral Predictions and Post-Behavior Evaluations Juliette Richetin and Marco Perugini University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy Iqbal Adjali and Robert Hurling Unilever Corporate Research, Bedford, U.K.
ABSTRACT This study aimed at comparing the predictive power of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior (MGB), and the Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behavior (EMGB)for observed and self-reported behaviors concerning consumer nondurables. More specifically, the three models were compared in terms of their predictive power for intention and for behavioral desire (only MGB and EMGB). Additionally, the validity of four different models for predicting post-behavior evaluations was examined. Results showed that the EMGB is the most powerful in predicting both intention and behavioral desire. Moreover, results revealed that, as exp…

A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling

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A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places.Cialdini, Robert B.;Reno, Raymond R.;Kallgren, Carl A..Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,58.6. (Jun 1990): 1015-1026.
This article is personal Note only, please reference to source
AbstrakPast research has generated mixed support among social scientists for the utility of social norms in accounting for human behavior. We argue that norms do have a substantial impact on human action; however, the impact can only be properly recognized when researchers (a) separate 2 types of norms that at times act antagonistically in a situation—injunctive norms (what most others approve or disapprove) and descriptive norms (what most others do)—and (b) focus Ss' attention principally on the type of norm being studied. In 5 natural settings, focusing Ss on either the descriptive norms or the injunctive norms regarding littering caused the Ss' littering decisions to change only in a…

Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and

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Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags de Groot, J. I., Abrahamse, W., & Jones, K. (2013). Persuasive normative messages: The influence of injunctive and personal norms on using free plastic bags.Sustainability,5(5), 1829-1844. Please reference to source, this paper for note only
Abstract: In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages (i.e., activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both) could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket‘s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design (N = 200) at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message condition than in the condition where only an environmental message was present. The combined normative message did result in the smallest uptake of …

The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms

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The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms Schultz, P. W., Nolan, J. M., Cialdini, R. B., Goldstein, N. J., & Griskevicius, V. (2007). The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms.Psychological science,18(5), 429-434.


Please reference to source, It’s note only


ABSTRACT—Despite a long tradition of effectiveness in laboratory tests, normative messages have had mixed success in changing behavior in field contexts, with some studies showing boomerang effects. To test a theoretical account of this inconsistency, we conducted a field experiment in which normative messages were used to promote household energy conservation. As predicted, a descriptive normative message detailing average neighborhood usage produced either desirable energy savings or the undesirable boomerang effect , depending on whether households were already consuming at a low or high rate. Also as predicted, adding an injunctive message (conveying social approval …

Persuasive communication and proenvironmental behaviours

Persuasive communication and proenvironmental behaviours: How message tailoring and message framing can improve the integration of behaviours through self-determined motivation Pelletier, L. G., & Sharp, E. (2008). Persuasive communication and proenvironmental behaviours: How message tailoring and message framing can improve the integration of behaviours through self-determined motivation.Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne,49(3), 210.


Please reference to source, this paper for note only

Public concern about environmental issues has grown substantially in the last two decades. As a consequence, the promotion of environmentally conscious behaviours that are integrated in people’s lifestyle has become an ongoing and important challenge. Persuasive messages are often perceived as the first step in efforts to motivate people to change a specific behaviour. In this article, the authors propose that (a) tailoring messages according to proposed processes underlying behavior change…

Motivations in Virtual Communities: A Literature Review

Note: Ini hanya sebuah catatan pribadi, mohon rujuk sumber asli
Motivations in Virtual Communities: A Literature Review
Camponovo, Giovanni (Sep 2011). Motivations in Virtual Communities: A Literature Review . European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation: 598-IX. Reading: Academic Conferences International Limited. Camponovo, G. (2011). Motivations in virtual communities: A literature review. Paper presented at the 598-IX. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1010055872?accountid=1724
Abstract One of the major recent trends in the IT landscape is the fast emergence of community-based models centered on the active participation of users as contributors. This trend is so strong that many observers consider it as a step in the evolution of systems, for instance by referring to it as Web 2.0.Community-based models permeated various types of services like social networks, user generated contentcommunities, interest or practice communities, peer-to-peer networks, ope…
Gender differences in intentional social action: we-intention to engage in social network-facilitated team collaboration
Shen, Aaron Xl; Lee, Matthew KoView Profile; Cheung, Christy MkView Profile; Chen, Huaping (Jun 201) View Profile. Journal of Information Technology, suppl. Special Issue on Social Networking 25.2 0. 152-169. Shen, A. X., Lee, M. K., Cheung, C. M., & Chen, H. (2010). Gender differences in intentional social action: We-intention to engage in social network-facilitated team collaboration.Journal of Information Technology,25(2), 152-169. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2010.12 Shen, A. X., Lee, M. K., Cheung, C. M., & Chen, H. (2010). Gender differences in intentional social action: we-intention to engage in social network-facilitated team collaboration. Journal of Information Technology, 25(2), 152-169.
Note: Ini hanya sebuah catatan pribadi, mohon rujuk sumber asli
Abstrac The growth and popularity of Web 2.0 applications help people to build and maintain their s…

The role of desire in the prediction of intention: The case of smoking behavior

Jurnal:
Kova V B & Rise, J. (2011). The Role of Desire in The Prediction of Intention: The Case of Smoking Behavior. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 70 (3), 2011, 141–148 DOI 10.1024/1421-0185/a000049 Kovač, V. B., & Rise, J. (2011). The role of desire in the prediction of intention: The case of smoking behavior. Swiss Journal of Psychology/Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Revue Suisse de Psychologie, 70(3), 141.
Note: Ini hanya sebuah catatan, jangan dijadikan rujukan. Silahkan merujuk ke sumber aslinya

The role of desire in the prediction of intention: The case of smoking behavior
Abstract.This paper is based on the notion that desire represents an important motivational aspect of the decision-making process. Thus, we examined the hypotheses that desire (1) predicts behavioral intentions and(2) mediates the effects of theory of planned behavior (TPB) components and past behavior on an individual’s intention to quit smoking. The analysis is based on three separate condition…

The role of desires and anticipated emotions in goal-directed behaviours

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The role of desires and anticipated emotions in goal-directed behaviours: Broadening and deepening the theory of planned behaviour Perugini, Marco; Bagozzi, Richard P. (2001)The British Journal of Social Psychology, 40,  79-98.
Abstrak Building on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we develop a new model of purposive behaviour which suggests that desires are the proximal causes of intentions, and the traditional antecedents in the TPB work through desires. In addition, perceived consequences of goal achievement and goal failure are modelled as anticipated emotions, which also function as determinants of desires. The new model is tested in two studies: an investigation of bodyweight regulation by 108 Italians at the University of Rome and an investigation of effort expended in studying by 122 students at the University of Rome. Frequency and recency of past behaviour are controlled for in test…
SOCIAL INFLUENCE: Compliance and Conformity Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity.Annual Review of Psychology,55, 591-621. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205845016?accountid=1724... Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity.Annu. Rev. Psychol.,55, 591-621. Please reference to source, It’s note only ABSTRACT This review covers recent developments in thesocial influenceliterature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outsideinfluencesare considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningfulsocialrelationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement …